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SAP Controlling (CO) is another important SAP module offered to organizations. It supports coordination, monitoring and optimization of all processes in the organization. With SAP CO, both the consumption of production factors and the services provided by the organization are recorded. SAP CO includes administration and configuration of master data covering cost and profit centers, internal procurement and other types of cost and functional areas.
The main goal of the SAP control module is planning. You can determine deviations by comparing actual data with planning data, and thus control the business processes in your company.
The SAP CO module covers several key areas within management accounting:
1. Cost Element Accounting: This aspect deals with the recording and tracking of expenses and revenues, also known as cost elements, in the organization. It helps analyze cost elements and understand their contributions to various cost objects (such as products, cost centers, or projects).
2. Cost Center Accounting: Cost centers are organizational units within a company that incur costs. SAP CO allows the allocation of costs to specific cost centers and tracks the costs incurred by these centers. It helps in analyzing the cost behavior of different departments or functions.
3. Internal Orders: Internal orders are used to monitor costs for specific short-term objectives or events, such as a marketing campaign or a special project. SAP CO provides functionalities to create, manage, and settle internal orders.
4. Product Cost Controlling: This area deals with the calculation and analysis of product costs. It includes various methods of costing, such as standard costing, actual costing, and activity-based costing (ABC). Product Cost Controlling helps organizations determine the cost of goods manufactured or produced.
5. Profitability Analysis (CO-PA): CO-PA enables organizations to analyze their profitability based on different dimensions, such as customer, product, region, or business segment. It helps in understanding the contribution margins and profitability of different business areas.
6. Profit Center Accounting: Profit centers represent individual areas of responsibility within an organization, such as business units or divisions. SAP CO facilitates the tracking and reporting of profits and losses for these centers.
This SAP CO (basic to advanced) course by Uplatz will help you master the concepts of SAP CO module and learn the configurations involved. You will gain knowledge to clear the SAP (FI) CO Certification exam as well as will acquire skills to become a successful SAP FICO Consultant.
In this SAP CO course you will learn - Introduction to SAP controls, Manage basic settings, Cost accounting, Cost center accounting, Integration of CO into production planning, Part list, work plan, work center scheduling run, Multi-level control over product costs, Estimated unit cost, Cost planning for products with a quantitative structure, Profitability Analysis of Co-PA - COPA by cost, COPA by cost.
Becoming an SAP CO (Controlling) consultant offers several compelling benefits: high demand, lucrative career, diverse industry exposure, problem-solving role, constant learning, global opportunities, ob stability, career flexibility, impact on business processes, and professional recognition, to name a few.
You will be awarded a Course Complection Certificate by Uplatz at the end of the course.
Course/Topic - SAP CO (basic to advanced) - all lectures
SAP is a market leader in providing ERP (Enterprise Resource and Planning) solutions and services. In this video, we will try to understand more on ERP and where it should be used. In addition, we will learn the implementation techniques of ERP along with the ERP packages available in the market.
In this tutorial we will discuss the organizational structure relating to the Controlling module of SAP. This particular video focuses mainly on the conceptual understanding of SAP CO organizational structure.
Cost Element Accounting is the area of cost accounting where you track and structure the costs incurred during a settlement period. In this case, the cost element represents the link between the account in Financial Accounting (FI) and the cost element in Controlling (CO).
This demo was created to clarify the system logic of the CO-FI reconciliation. This function reconciles the internal posts from CO to FI. You can use the Real-Time integration to transfer cross-company code or cross-functional area postings made in CO that are relevant to FI and to automatically create reconciliation postings in FI.
SAP CO Profit Centre is used for managing internal controlling. When you divide your company into profit centres, it allows you to delegate responsibility to decentralized units and treat them as separate companies in a company. It also allows you to calculate key figures in cost accounting like ROI, Cash flow, etc.
The Primary objective of Profit Center is to represent an independent organizational subunit that operates practically independently in the market, bears responsibility for its own costs and revenue , and can be expanded to become an investment center or can be treated as a Company within a company.
The Profit center approach embodies the increasing re-establishment between internal and external accounting, functioning as a connecting link between two Accounting concepts.
Before you start proceeding with this tutorial, we assume that you are well-versed with basic Controlling and Accounting concepts. You should have a good exposure to Cost Center Management activities. If you are not aware of these concepts, then we recommend that you first go through our tutorial on SAP CO.
This tutorial has been prepared for anyone who has a basic knowledge of controlling activities in an organization. After completing this tutorial, you will find yourself at a moderate level of expertise in maintaining SAP Cost Center Accounting and Controlling advance functions.
SAP Cost Center Accounting (CCA) is used to perform Controlling activities in an Organization. In any organization, cost incurred to perform certain activities should be transparent. Using Cost Center Accounting, you can perform profitability analysis of each functional area and helps all cost to be assigned to source.
SAP CO internal order monitors the parts of the costs and in a few cases, it also monitors the revenues of the organization. You can create an internal order to monitor the costs of a time-restricted job or the costs for the production of activities.
Internal order planning to use to plan, collect, and settle the costs of internal jobs and tasks and involves planning for overhead cost orders, internal orders with revenues, accrual orders, and capital investment orders.
An internal order is used as an interim collector of costs and is used for planning, monitoring, and controlling the processes. When the job has been completed, you settle the costs to one or more receivers like cost centers, fixed assets, etc.
SAP CO Product Costing module is used to find the value of internal cost of products. It is also used for profitability and management accounting for production.
SAP CO Profitability Analysis is used to analyze the market segments classified as products, customers, sales area, business area, etc.
These reports provide real-time information and come with drill down functionality. Most CO reports are built with Report Painter. Cost Center Report Plan / Actual / Variance analysis is chosen as example for these reports.
If the standard reports don’t fulfil your needs, you can build own reports with Report Painter. Easiest way to learn Report Painter and create own reports is to copy an existing report and modify it.
This is Report Painter tutorial for beginners. Screen by screen you will learn how to use this tool. When you master the basics, you’re ready to start with your own reports.
LSMW is a tool that supports the transfer of data from non-SAP systems ("Legacy Systems") to SAP R/3 systems. This can be a one-time transfer as well as a periodic one.
• Understand how Controlling in SAP works
• Learn the most important features of Cost Element and Cost Center Accounting
• Study Internal Order functionality
• Learn Profit Center Accounting and Profitability Analysis features
• Basic knowledge of SAP Finance and Controlling.
• Associate Level knowledge of SAP ERP Controlling Module
• Basic knowledge of Financial Accounting and Management Accounting
SAP CO (basic to advanced) - Course Syllabus
• Cost Center Accounting
• Internal Orders
• Product Cost Planning
• Profitability Analysis
• Cost Object Controlling
• Profit Center Accounting
• Basics of SAP ERP and SAP Solution Manager
• Organizational Assignments and Process Integration
The SAP CO (basic to advanced) Certification ensures you know planning, production and measurement techniques needed to stand out from the competition.
SAP Controlling (CO) is another important SAP module offered to an organization. It supports coordination, monitoring, and optimization of all the processes in an organization. SAP CO involves recording both the consumption of production factors and the services provided by an organization.
The SAP Controlling module is part of SAP Finance in the ERP system (Enterprise Resource Planning). ... The SAP CO module facilitates planning, recording, and tracking of business transactions. It also includes methods of monitoring and managing costs required for financial reporting.
A SAP Finance and Controlling (FICO) consultant designs, builds, and deploys SAP-based enterprise resource planning (ERP) solutions. The responsibilities of this professional include understanding an organization's business requirements, training end-users, and sorting out the end user's day-to-day queries.
SAP Project System (PS) is a part of SAP's Project and Portfolio Management solution. Project System helps manage projects throughout the entire project lifecycle, from the creation of a project to the preparation of detailed plans, project execution and completion.
Uplatz online training guarantees the participants to successfully go through the SAP CO (basic to advanced) Certification provided by Uplatz. Uplatz provides appropriate teaching and expertise training to equip the participants for implementing the learnt concepts in an organization.
Course Completion Certificate will be awarded by Uplatz upon successful completion of the SAP CO (basic to advanced) online course.
The SAP CO (basic to advanced) draws an average salary of $120,000 per year depending on their knowledge and hands-on experience.
Now with the new normal of remote work and social distancing, organizations are forced to realize that cloud-based services are far more affordable and scalable than their on-premise counterparts.
Numerous professionals compare salaries drawn by SAP consultants with different platforms like JAVA, Networking, Software Programming, Sales, and Marketing or maintenance, and end up finding that the SAP experts make more money than they ever dreamed.
Note that salaries are generally higher at large companies rather than small ones. Your salary will also differ based on the market you work in.
SAP HANA Design Specialist.
SAP Integration Specialist - Assistant Manager.
SAP GTS Techno Functional analyst.
Q1. Explain ‘Controlling (CO)’ in SAP?
Ans: SAP calls managerial accounting ‘Controlling’ and the module is commonly known as ‘CO.’ The CO module is, thus, primarily oriented towards managing and reporting cost/revenue and is mainly used in ‘internal’ decision-making. As with any other module, this module also has configuration set-up and application functionality.
The controlling module focuses on internal users and helps management by providing reports on cost centers, profit centers, contribution margins and profitability, etc.
Q2. What Are The Important ‘Organizational Elements of CO'?
Ans: The important organizational structure of controlling includes:
Operating Concern (the top-most reporting level for profitability analysis and sales and marketing controlling).
Controlling Area (central organization in ‘controlling,’ structuring internal accounting operations).
Cost Centers (lower-most organizational units where costs are incurred and transferred).
Q3. What Is A ‘controlling Area’? How Is It Related To A Company Code?
Ans: A ‘Controlling Area’ is the central organizational structure in ‘controlling’ (CO) and is used in cost accounting. The controlling area, as in the case of a Company Code, is a self-contained cost accounting entity for internal reporting purposes. The controlling area is assigned to one or more Company Codes to ensure that the necessary transactions, posted in FI, are transferred to controlling for cost accounting processing.
One controlling area can be assigned one or more Company Codes.
One chart of accounts can be assigned to one or more controlling areas.
One or more controlling areas can be assigned to an operating concern.
One Client can have one or more controlling areas.
Q4. Outline ‘Company Code - Controlling Area’ Assignments?
Ans: There are two types of assignments possible between the Company Code and a Controlling Area:
One-to-one: Here, one Company Code corresponds to one controlling area.
Many-to-one: More than one Company Code is assigned to a single controlling area.
Q5. What Are The ‘components Of Controlling’?
Ans: There are eight major submodules in CO and each of these submodules has many components as detailed below:
1. Cost Element Accounting
2. Cost Controlling
3. Cost Center Accounting
4. Internal Orders
5. Activity-Based Costing
6. Product Cost Controlling
7. Profitability Analysis
8. Profit Center Accounting
Q6. Why Do You Need ‘Cost Element Accounting’?
Ans: Cost Element Accounting’ (CO-OM-CEL) helps you to classify costs/revenues posted to CO. It also provides you the ability to reconcile the costs between FI and CO. CO-OM-CEL provides the structure for assignment of CO data in the form of cost/revenue carriers called cost elements or revenue elements.
Q7. Explain ‘Cost Center Accounting’?
Ans: Cost Center Accounting’ deals with the difficult task of managing ‘overheads’ within your organization. Since overhead costs are something that you cannot directly associate with a product or service, which can be difficult to control, cost center accounting provides you with the necessary tools to achieve this.
Q8. What Is ‘activity-based Costing’?
Ans: Activity-Based Costing,’ popularly known as ABC, helps you to view overhead costs from the point of business processes. The result is you will be able to optimize costs for the entire business process. As a single business process, activity-based costing will cut across several cost centers and will give you an enhanced view of the costs incurred.
Q9. What Is ‘Product Cost Controlling’ (CO-PC)?
Ans: Product Cost Controlling’ (CO-PC) deals with estimating the costs to produce a product/service. CO-PC is divided into two major areas:
1. Cost of materials
2. Cost of processing
With CO-PC, you can calculate:
1. Cost of goods manufactured (COGM)
2. Cost of goods sold (COGS)
CO-PC is tightly integrated with Production Planning (PP) and Materials Management (MM), in addition to FI. The functionality helps to:
· Calculate Standard Costs of manufactured goods
· Calculate the Work-in-Progress (WIP)
· Calculate the Variances, at period-end
· Finalize settlement of product costs
Note that CO-PC deals only with production costs as it deals only with the production.
Q10. What Is ‘Profitability Analysis’ (CO-PA)?
Ans: ‘Profitability Analysis’ (CO-PA) helps you determine how profitable (denoted by the ‘contribution margin’) your market segments are. The analysis is on the external side of the market. You will be able to define what segments, such as customer, product, geography, sales organization, etc., of the market are required for analyzing ‘operating results/profits.’ With multi-dimensional ‘drill-down’ capability, you have all the flexibility you need for reporting.
Q11. How Is ‘Profit Center Accounting’ (ec-pca) Different From Co-PA?
Ans: Unlike CO-PA where the focus is on external market segments’ profitability, ‘Profit Center Accounting’ (EC-PCA) focuses on profitability of internal areas (profit centers) of the enterprise. Profit center accounting is used to draw internal balance sheets and profit & loss statements. You may use EC-PCA in place of business area accounting.
Both CO-PA and EC-PCA serve different purposes, and are not mutually exclusive. You may need them both in your organization.
Q12. Explain ‘integration Of Co’ With Its Components And Other Sap Modules?
The CO module is integrated with FI, AA, SD, MM, PP, and HR:
Ans: FI is the main source of data for CO. All expenses, posted in FI, flow to CO through the ‘primary cost elements’ to the appropriate ‘cost centers.’ Similarly, postings in Asset Accounting (such as depreciations) are also passed on to CO.
Revenue postings in FI would result in postings in CO-PA and also in EC-PCA.
The SD, MM, and PP modules have many integration points in CO. Goods issue (GI) to a controlling object or goods receipt (GR) from a ‘production order’ are some examples of integration. These modules are tightly integrated as consumption activities, cost of goods issued, overhead charges, material costs, etc., which are passed on to production objects such as PP production order or sales order. The WIP (Work-in-Progress) and the variances, at period ends, are settled to CO-PA, CO-PCA, and also to FI. Revenues are directly posted when you generate billing documents in SD, if the sales order is a cost object item.
The HR module generates various types of costs to be posted in CO. Planned HR costs can also be passed on for CO planning.
Q13. What Is A ‘cost Object’?
Ans: A ‘Cost Object,’ also known as a CO Account Assignment Object, in SAP denotes a unit to which you can assign objects. It is something like a repository in which you collect costs, and, if necessary, move the costs from one object to another. All the components of CO have their own cost objects such as cost centers, internal orders, etc.
The cost objects decide the nature of postings as to whether they are real postings or statistical postings. All the objects that are identified as statistical postings are not considered cost objects (for example, profit centers).
Q14. Differentiate Between ‘real’ And ‘statistical Postings’ In CO?
Ans: The CO account assignment objects decide the type of postings allowed. They can be real or statistical postings.
‘Real Postings’ allow you to further allocate/settle those costs to any other cost object in CO, either as ‘senders’ or as ‘receivers.’ The objects that are allowed to have real postings include:
· Cost Centers
· Internal Orders (Real)
· Projects (Real)
· Profitability Segments
· PP—Production Orders (make-to-order)
‘Statistical Postings,’ on the other hand, are only for information purposes. You will not be able to further allocate/settle these statistical costs to other cost objects. Examples of such objects include:
· Statistical (Internal) Orders
· Statistical Projects
· Profit Centers
Q15. How Do You Define ‘Number Ranges’ In CO?
Ans: You will be required to define, for each of the controlling areas, the ‘Number Ranges’ for all transactions that will generate documents in CO. Once done for a controlling area, you may copy from one controlling area to other controlling areas when you have more than one such area.
To avoid too many documents, SAP recommends grouping multiple but similar transactions, and then assigning number ranges to this group. Further, you may create different number ranges for plan and actual data. As in FI, the number ranges can be internal or external. The document number ranges in CO are independent of fiscal years.
Q16. How Does ‘Master Data’ Differ From ‘transaction Data’ In CO?
Ans: The ‘Master Data’ remain unchanged over a long period, whereas ‘Transaction Data’ are short-term. The transaction data are assigned to the master data.
Though you normally create the master data from transactions, note that you will be able to create these records from the configuration side as well. When you need to create a large number of master data, you may use the ‘collective processing’ option to create related master records in one step. SAP puts master data in ‘groups’ for easy maintenance.
In the case of master data of cost center/cost elements/activity types, once they are created, you will not be able to change the date. SAP calls this feature the ‘time dependency’ of master data. If necessary, you can extend the ‘time’ by creating a new one and attaching it to the existing objects. In the case of resources, the master data are time-dependent and the system will allow you to delete these objects. Statistical Key Figures (SKF) are not time-dependent; once defined they are available in the system forever.
Q17. What Is A ‘Cost Element’?
Ans: ‘Cost Elements’ represent the origin of costs. There are two types of cost elements:
Primary Cost Elements
Secondary Cost Elements
Q18. What Is A ‘primary Cost Element’?
Ans: Primary Cost Elements’ represent the consumption of production factors such as raw materials, human resources, utilities, etc. Primary cost elements have their corresponding GL accounts in FI. All the expense/revenue accounts in FI correspond to the primary cost elements in CO. Before you can create the primary cost elements in CO, you first need to create them in FI as GL accounts.
Note that SAP treats revenue elements also as primary cost elements in CO processing. The only difference is that all the revenue elements are identified with a negative sign while posting in CO. The revenue elements correspond to the revenue accounts in FI and they fall under the cost element category, category 01/11.
Q19. What Is A ‘secondary Cost Element’?
Ans: Secondary Cost Elements’ represent the consumption of production factors provided internally by the enterprise itself, and are present only in the CO. They are actually like cost carriers, and are used in allocations and settlements in CO. While creating these elements, you need to mention the cost element category, which can be any of the following:
Category 21, used in internal settlements
Category 42, used in assessments
Category 43, used in internal activity allocation
Q20. What Is A ‘cost Element Category’?
Ans: All the cost elements need to be assigned to a ‘Cost Element Category,’ to determine the transactions for which you can use the cost elements.
Category 01, known as the ‘general primary cost elements,’ is used in standard primary postings from FI or MM into CO.
Category 22 is used to settle order/project costs, or cost object costs to objects outside of CO (such as assets, materials, GL accounts, etc.).
Q21. How Do You Automatically Create ‘Cost Elements’?
Ans: You will be able to create ‘cost elements’ automatically by specifying the cost element, the cost element interval, and the cost element category for the cost elements. All these are achieved by creating default settings. The creation of cost elements is done in the background.
The primary cost elements can be created only when you have the corresponding GL accounts in the chart of accounts of the Company Code. Even though the GL account names are used as the names of the primary cost elements thus created by the system, you have the option of changing these names in CO. All the secondary cost elements are created in CO; the name of these cost elements comes from the cost element category.
Q22. Explain ‘Segments’ And ‘Cycles.’?
Ans: A ‘Segment’ is one processing unit required to complete an automated allocation of distribution or assessment or reposting of planned/actual costs in controlling in SAP. A segment is made up of (a) allocation characteristics—to identify the sender/receiver, (b) values of the sender—plan/actual, type of costs to be allocated, and (c) values of the receiver—the basis for allocation, for example, the tracing factor such as SKF, percentages, etc.
When you combine multiple segments into a single process, then you call that the ‘Cycle.’ A Cycle helps you to process various segments in a chain-like fashion one after another. A Cycle consists of header data (valid for all Segments in a Cycle) and one or more Segments, with summarized rules and settings enabling allocation. The Segments within a ‘cycle’ can be processed iteratively (one segment waits for the results of another) or non-iteratively (all the segments are processed independently) or cumulatively (to take care of variations in receiver Tracing Factors or sender amounts).
Typically, when you start the cycles you will start them in a ‘test’ mode to see the allocations before actual postings. Technically, you can run the cycles in ‘production’ mode at any point of time, but the system will carry out the allocation postings only on the first day of a period. The utility of the cycle lies in the fact that you can run these period after period.
Q23. What Is ‘iterative Processing’ Of Cycles?
Ans: ‘Iterative Processing’ is nothing but the repetitive processing of sender/receiver relationships until the sender’s entire cost is transferred to the receiver(s). During iterative processing, you will not be able to use ‘fixed amounts’ as the ‘sender rules’; you will also not be able to define a percentage to remain on the sender. You will be able to use both plan and actual data while using the iteration.
Q24. What Is ‘Splitting’? Explain The ‘Splitting Structure.’?
Ans: ‘Splitting’ is a process used to assign ‘activity-independent’ plans/actual costs, both primary and secondary, of a cost center to the individual activity types within that cost center. But the important requirement is that you will use this when there is no account assignment to the activity types.
You may either use the Splitting rules or the Equivalence number to achieve this. When you split the costs from a cost center, the cost center temporarily becomes more than one cost center for the purpose of allocation but again becomes a single cost center when posting happens in the subsequent period.
If you need to assign different cost elements or cost element groups to activities in more than one way, then you need to define a ‘Splitting Structure’ containing ‘splitting rules’ to determine the criteria of splitting ‘activity-independent’ costs to an activity type. If you have created the splitting structure in customizing and assigned the same to a cost center, then the system uses the splitting structure for cost apportioning; otherwise, it will use the equivalence number.
The ‘splitting rules’ determine the amount or the proportion of costs to be allocated to various activity types of a cost center and is based on the consumption of these activity types. The costs thus allocated may be a fixed sum, or a percentage, or it can even be based on the tracing factors or SKFs.
The ‘equivalence number’ is a basic method for splitting the costs when you manually plan for each of the activity types. By this, you will plan all activity-independent costs according to the equivalence numbers (the default is 1).
Q25. What Is An ‘Activity Price Calculation’?
Ans: You will be completing the planning process only when you perform the ‘Activity Price Calculation,’ which is based on planned activities and costs. By doing this you are evaluating the planned secondary costs at receiving cost centers. If you do not want to use activity price thus calculated, you are free to use the political price for the activity type.
As you are aware, the activity price is used for planned/actual allocation and is determined by using either the political price or the system-calculated activity price.
Q26. What Is Known As The ‘political Price’ For An Activity Type?
Ans: The ‘Political Price’ is the price determined outside the SAP system, which is used in manual input using the required planning layout in planning.
Q27: What Is ‘Allocation Price Variance'?
‘Ans: Allocation Price Variance’ is the difference between the ‘political price’ of an activity type and the ‘system calculated activity price’ of the same activity type.
Q28. What Is ‘budgeting’?
Ans: ‘Budgeting’ is used to augment the planning process at the cost-center level. While planning is considered the ‘bottom-up’ approach, budgeting is regarded as the ‘top-down’ method to control costs.
Budgeting usually comes ‘down’ from the ‘top (management)’ and is used to guide the planning process at the cost-center level. Note that budgeting is not integrated with postings; you will get an error when the system comes across a posting that will result in the actual values exceeding the budget for that cost center.
Q29. What Are The ‘direct Allocation’ Methods Of Posting In CO?
Ans: The ‘Direct Allocation’ of posting in CO may be an actual cost entry or a transaction-based posting.
The actual cost entry is the transfer of primary costs from FI to CO, on a real-time basis, through the primary cost elements. You may also transfer transaction data by making the cost accounting assignment to cost objects from other modules such as FI-AA, SD, and MM:
FI-AA: Assign assets to a cost center (to post depreciation, etc.)
MM: Assign GR to a cost center/internal order
SD: Assign or settle a sales order to a cost center or internal order