Manual Testing is the process of identifying bugs/defects in an application or software program by manually executing the test cases. Software testing can be done manually by a tester or by automated tools such as Selenium, LoadRunner, etc.
Manual testing is the process in which a tester checks the design, functionality, navigation, data results, application flow of the software and logs the bugs or errors found which can be then fixed by the developers.
The end-user perspective is very important in manual testing since the tester usually tests the application from end users point of view. Also all test cases are scenarios are created and executed by the tester manually without using any automation tools.
Uplatz offers this comprehensive training on Manual Testing covering in detail the process of manual testing, test cases, practical scenarios, software bug identification & fixing, and application of software testing concepts through manual testing.
The manual testing professional online certification course is intended for software professionals who have testing knowledge and execute test cases and make sure the application is bug-free in accordance with the software requirements.
Manual Testing is a division of Software Testing where Testers usually execute test cases manually without the intervention of automation tools. Manual Testing is the most vital of all testing types and helps to analyse bugs in the software system.
Any newly built application must be manually tested before its testing is automated. Manual Testing requires more human effort but is necessary to check the automation feasibility.
Manual Testing does not require any knowledge of testing tool-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Quality analysis engineers
Test leads / managers
1. Fundamentals of Testing
1.1 Why is Testing Necessary?
1.1.1 Software Systems Context
1.1.2 Causes of Software Defects
1.1.3 Role of Testing in Software Development, Maintenance and Operations
1.1.4 Testing and Quality
1.1.5 How Much Testing is enough?
1.2 What is testing?
1.3 Seven Testing Principles
1.4 Fundamental Test Process
1.4.1 Test Planning and Control
1.4.2 Test Analysis and Design
1.4.3 Test Implementation and Execution
1.4.4 Evaluating Exit Criteria and Reporting
1.4.5 Test Closure Activities
1.5 The Psychology of Testing
1.6 Code of Ethics
2. Testing Throughout the Software Life Cycle
2.1 Software Development Models
2.1.1 V-model (Sequential Development Model)
2.1.2 Iterative-incremental Development Models
2.1.3 Testing within a Life Cycle Model
2.2 Test Levels
2.2.1 Component Testing
2.2.2 Integration Testing
2.2.3 System Testing
2.2.4 Acceptance Testing
2.3 Test Types
2.3.1 Testing of Function (Functional Testing)
2.3.2 Testing of Non-functional Software Characteristics (Non-functional Testing)
2.3.3 Testing of Software Structure/Architecture (Structural Testing)
2.3.4 Testing Related to Changes: Re-testing and Regression Testing
2.4 Maintenance Testing
3. Static Techniques
3.1 Static Techniques and the Test Process
3.2 Review Process
3.2.1 Activities of a Formal Review
3.2.2 Roles and Responsibilities
3.2.3 Types of Reviews
3.2.4 Success Factors for Reviews
3.3 Static Analysis by Tools
4. Test Design Techniques
4.1 The Test Development Process
4.2 Categories of Test Design Techniques
4.3 Specification-based or Black-box Techniques
4.3.1 Equivalence Partitioning
4.3.2 Boundary Value Analysis
4.3.3 Decision Table Testing
4.3.4 State Transition Testing
4.3.5 Use Case Testing
4.4 Structure-based or White-box Techniques
4.4.1 Statement Testing and Coverage
4.4.2 Decision Testing and Coverage
4.4.3 Other Structure-based Techniques
4.5 Experience-based Techniques
4.6 Choosing Test Techniques
5. Test Management
5.1 Test Organization
5.1.2 Tasks of the Test Leader and Tester
5.2 Test Planning and Estimation
5.2.1 Test Planning
5.2.2 Test Planning Activities
5.2.3 Entry Criteria
5.2.4 Exit Criteria
5.2.5 Test Estimation
5.2.6 Test Strategy, Test Approach
5.3 Test Progress Monitoring and Control
5.3.1 Test Progress Monitoring
5.3.2 Test Reporting
5.3.3 Test Control
5.4 Configuration Management
5.5 Risk and Testing
5.5.1 Project Risks
5.5.2 Product Risks
5.6 Incident Management
6. Tool Support for Testing
6.1 Types of Test Tools
6.1.1 Tool Support for Testing
6.1.2 Test Tool Classification
6.1.3 Tool Support for Management of Testing and Tests
6.1.4 Tool Support for Static Testing
6.1.5 Tool Support for Test Specification
6.1.6 Tool Support for Test Execution and Logging
6.1.7 Tool Support for Performance and Monitoring
6.1.8 Tool Support for Specific Testing Needs
6.2 Effective Use of Tools: Potential Benefits and Risks
6.2.1 Potential Benefits and Risks of Tool Support for Testing (for all tools)
6.2.2 Special Considerations for Some Types of Tools
6.3 Introducing a Tool into an Organization
The manual test professional testing online certification course trained by expert professionals provides wide range of job opportunities owing its testing features and methodologies. The leading companies hire manual testers to manage testing process efficiently.
The following are the job titles:
The manual testers draws an average salary in the range of $100,757 to $190,500 per year based on the seniority level.
Software Testing Interview Questions
1) How would you define Manual Testing?
Software testing is a validation process that makes sure a system works as per the business requirements. It evaluates and qualifies a system on various aspects such as accuracy, completeness, usability, efficiency, and more.
2) Explain "use-case testing"?
"Use case" is used to identify and execute the functional requirement of an application from start to finish, and the technique used to do this is known as "Use Case Testing."
3) Define Static Testing?
One of the white box testing techniques, that with the help of a checklist, directs developers to verify their code to find errors in it. Developers can start static testing without finalizing the program or application. Static testing is cost-effective than dynamic testing as it conceals more areas than dynamic testing in a shorter time.
4) State the difference between STLC and SDLC.
STLC deales with verification and validation of the software while SDLC deals with the development/coding of the software.
5) What is Test coverage?
Test coverage is a quality metric that represents the percentage amount of testing completed for a product. It is relevant for both non-functional and functional testing activities. The metric is used to add missing test cases.
6) Can system testing be done at any stage?
No, we cannot do system testing at any stage, it must start only if all modules work correctly and are in place, but it should be performed before UAT (user acceptance testing).
7) What are the different kinds of software testing?
Manual testers use the following kinds of Software testing:
1. Unit testing
2. Integration testing
3. Regression testing
4. Shakeout testing
5. Smoke testing
6. Functional testing
7. Performance testing
a) Load testing
b) Stress testing
c) Endurance testing
8. White-box and Black-box testing
9. Alpha and Beta testing
10. System testing
8) What is agile testing and what is its importance?
Agile testing evaluates software from the perspective of the customer. Its importance is that it does not require the development team to complete coding for starting QA. Instead, testing and coding go hand in hand. However, it may require continuous customer interaction.
9) What is to be done when bug turns up during testing?
We can follow the below steps when there is bug encountered while testing:
Run more tests to confirm that there is a clear description of the problem.
Ensuring that the same problem doesn’t exist with different inputs by running a few more tests.
Once we are certain about the full scope of the bug, we can add details and report it.
10) What to do when a bug is encountered?
After finding the bug, the first thing is to lock the bug in the bug report. Then this bug needs to be assigned and communicated to developers who can fix it. After the developer fixes the bug, fixes must be re-tested, and determinations must be made regarding requirements for regression testing to make sure that fixes didn’t create problems elsewhere.
11) What do you mean by Exploratory Testing?
Exploratory testing is testing an application without a test plan and test script. In exploring the testing test, explore the application based on the tester's knowledge as the tester does not know the application previously. Tester explores the application like an end-user and tries to use it. While using the application, his main motive is to find the bugs which are in the application.
12) What is white boxing testing, also mention its types?
White box testing technique involves the selection of test cases based on an analysis of the internal structure i.e., code coverage, branches coverage, paths coverage, condition coverage, and more, of a system or a component. It is also referred to as Structural testing or Code-Based testing. Different types of white box testing are:
1. Statement Coverage
2. Decision Coverage
13) What is verified in white box testing?
The white box testing following verifies the following:
1. The security holes in the code
2. The broken or incomplete paths in the code
3. The flow of structure as per the document specification
4. The expected outputs
5. All conditional loops in the code that checks the complete functionality of the application
6. The line by line coding and cover testing
14) Explain black box testing and what are the different black box testing techniques?
Black box testing is the testing method that involves testing the software without knowing the internal structure of the program or code. This testing is usually checking the functionality of an application.
Black box testing techniques are:
1. Equivalence Partitioning
2. Boundary value analysis
3. Cause-effect graphing
15) What are verification and validation?
The verification process involves evaluating software in the development phase. It helps the tester to decide whether the product of a given application satisfies the specific requirements.
The validation process involves evaluating software after the development process and to check whether it meets the customer requirements.
16) Distinguish between System Testing and UAT (User Acceptance Testing)
UAT: User Acceptance Testing (UAT) is a process of running a product through a series of specific tests, thereby determining whether the product will meet the needs of its users.
System Testing: Also known as end-to-end testing, is finding defects when the system undergoes testing as a whole, In such type of testing, the application suffers from beginning till the end.
17) Define mutation testing?
The mutation testing technique to identify if a set of test cases is useful by intentionally introducing various bugs and retesting with original test cases to determine if the bugs are detected.
18) Explain the Positive Testing approach?
The purpose of postive testing is to ensure whether the system is confirming to the requirements or not.
19) Explain the Negative Testing approach?
The purpose of negative testing is to identify what the system should not do. It helps uncover potential flaws in the software.
20) What is Test Plan, and what does it include?
It is the responsibility of a Test Lead or Testing Manager to create the Test Plan document.
A test plan captures all possible testing activities to guarantee a quality product. It gathers data from the product description, requirement, and use case documents.
The test plan document includes the following:
· Test scope
· Testing the frame
· The environment
· Reason for testing
· The criteria for entrance and exit
· Risk factors
21) What is the difference between Master Test Plan and Test Plan?
The difference between the Master Plan and Test Plan can be described using the following points.
1. Master Test Plan contains all the test scenarios and risks prone areas of the application. Whereas, the Test Plan document contains test cases corresponding to test scenarios.
2. Master Test Plan captures every test to be run during the overall development of the application, whereas the test plan describes the scope, approach, resources, and schedule of performing the execution.
3. MTP includes test scenarios for all the phases of the application development lifecycle. Whereas, a separate test plan also exists for the Unit, Functional, and System testing, which includes cases specific to related areas.
4. A Master Test Plan suffices for big projects which require execution in all phases of testing. However, preparing a basic Test Plan is enough for small projects.
22) What are Test Cases?
A test case is a sequence of actions and observations that are used to verify the desired functionality.
A good test case helps to identify problems in the requirements or design of an application.
23) What is the difference between High level and Low-Level test cases?
High-level test cases cover the core functionality of a product like standard business flows.
Low-level test cases are those related to user interface (UI) in the application.
24) What is a Test Scenario?
Test Scenario represents a condition or a possibility which defines what to test.
It can have multiple test cases to cover a scenario.
25) How is a Test Case different from a Test Scenario?
A test case is a testing artifact to verify a particular flow with defined input values, test preconditions, expected output, and postconditions prepared to cover specific behavior.
A test scenario can have one or many associations with a test case, which means it can include multiple test cases.
26) What is a Test Suite?
A test suite is a group of test cases. Each test case intends to test the application functionality.
27) What is meant by Test Bed?
It refers to a test set up, which includes necessary H/W, S/W, N/W, AUT, and any dependency software.
28) What is meant by Test Environment?
Test Environment mostly refers to the essential hardware and software required to perform testing.
29) What is meant by Test Data?
Test data is a set of input values required to execute the test cases. Testers define the test data according to the test requirements. They can do it manually or use generation tools.
For example, if a tester is validating a graphics tool, then he would need to procure relevant data for the graph generation.
30) What is meant by Test Harness?
A test harness is a set of scripts and demo data that tests an application under variable conditions and observes its behavior and outputs.
It emphasizes on running the test cases randomly rather than in a sequence.
31) Mention the categories of debugging?
Categories for debugging are:
1. Brute force debugging
3. Cause elimination
4. Program Slicing
5. Fault tree analysis
32) What is the testing type and what are the commonly used testing types?
Testing type is a standard procedure is followed to get an expected test outcome.
Commonly used testing types are:
- Unit Testing: To test the smallest code of an application.
- API Testing: Tests the created API for the application.
- Integration Testing: Combines the individual software modules and tests them.
- System Testing: Tests the complete system.
- Install/Uninstall Testing: Testing done from the perspective of client/customer view
- Agile Testing: Testing through Agile technique
33) List the key challenges of software testing?
Some of the challenges of software testing are:
- Availability of standard documents and resources
- to understand the application
- Shortage of skilled testers
- Understanding the requirements: Testers require excellent understanding and listening capabilities to be able to communicate with the customers about the conditions.
- The ability to analyze when to stop testing
- Ability to work under time constraints
- Ability to make the decisions
- Using an optimized number of test cases and testing the entire application
34) What are the functional test cases and non-functional test cases?
Functional testing defines as testing the ‘functionality’ of a software or an application under review. The software is examined as per client requirements. A document called as s requirement specification or software specification is used as a guide to testing the application.
35) What is Non-functional testing?
When an application works as per the user’s expectation, efficiently and smoothly under any condition, then it is a reliable application. It is critical to test these parameters based on the quality; this process is called non-functional testing.
36) Differentiate between error, bug, and defect.
A slip in coding is an error. A defect is an error spotted by a manual tester. The defect which is admitted by the development team is known as a bug. Functional failure occurs when a built code misses on the requirement.
37) Differentiate between quality assurance, quality control, and manual testing.
A systematic and planned way of monitoring the quality of the process, which is followed to produce a quality product, refers to Quality Testing(QA). QA modifies the process tracks the test reports to meet the expectations of the project.
Quality Control (QC) is about the quality of the product. QC suggests improvements apart from finding defects. Hence, QC implements the process set by QA. The testing team is responsible for quality control.
38) What are drivers and stubs in manual testing?
Drivers and stubs are part of incremental testing. Incremental testing consists of two approaches, namely the bottom-up and top-down approach. Drivers are used in bottom-up testing, and the stub is used for a top-down approach. The stub, which is a dummy code or program is used to test the main module.
39) Lists the common risks that lead to project failure.
Enlisted are the common risks that lead to project failure:
• Not having enough human resource
• Testing Environment may not be set up properly
• Limited Budget
• Time Limitations
40) What is the function of phantom as a manual testing tool?
Phantom is a freeware used by windows GUI automation scripting language. It allows the user to take control of functions and windows automatically by simulating any combination of mouse clicks and keystrokes as well as menus, lists, and more.
This course is specifically designed to help you clear the certification exam successfully. The comprehensive content of the course along with demonstration of practical scenarios & examples will make you understand each and every topic in great depth. Since the course structure has a special focus on certification, hence you will go through a lot of real-time case studies and study material during the training that will help you crack the certification exam.
Software testing is known as the validation process which confirms the system working condition according to the business requirements.
Testing process should begin from the beginning of the project. Once you get the requirements set, System testing plan and test case preparation is started. It also helps in finding any gaps in the functional requirements.
Quality assurance is defined as a process-oriented approach to certify a software development lifecycle (SDLC) method that it follows the standard procedures. It may bring in changes in the process and cause to substitute the weak practices if it identifies any. It comprises review activities such as the document inspection, test cases, source code, and automation, etc.
Quality control is known for its product-oriented approach to certify that the product under development meets the defined software specifications. It also derives certain changes to the product.
It is defined as white box testing technique that guides the developers to qualify the code using the checklist to find bugs in it. Static testing is cost-effective when compared with Dynamic testing.
Dynamic testing comprises the execution of an application with valid inputs and validating the expected output.
White Box Testing has many alternative names such as Glass Box, Clear Box, or Structural Testing. It needs the testers to accelerate a code-level perspective, design use-cases to exploit code, and find out potential bugs.
Black Box Testing is a software testing approach that needs the testers to assess the software functionality as per the business requirements. They make use of the software as a black box and validate it as per the end-user point of view.
Both self-paced training and online instructor-led training have their own advantages and disadvantages. 1) Suitability - If you have no idea about the course content and have no experience on it, then online instructor-led training will help you understand the course content better and deeply. 2) Flexibility - Self-paced training is generally more flexible than the tutor-led training since you can learn at your own pace through the videos as and when you have time. 3) Doubt-clearing, assignments etc. - You can attempt assignments and get feedback from the tutor in instructor-led training and also can get your doubts cleared during the class. Cost (more for instructor-led training) and other factors are also important.
We have a highly qualified and experienced team of professionals who are experts in their fields. Our trainers are highly supportive and render a friendly learning environment to the students focusing on their career growth.
In normal circumstances the tutor should be able to reschedule the class as per your convenient time but if you accidently miss any particular class in a multi-student batch then you can catch-up from the corresponding session recording that will be shared with all students or you can request the tutor to hold a separate class for you later on the topics covered in that class.
We provide server access for you to practice on and our trainers will ensure that you get practical real-time experience and training with all the utilities required for in-depth understanding of the course.
Yes. We provide lifetime access to Uplatz Learning Hub where you can view or download the course material anytime.
Yes. We have special offer/discount on this course. Please send email to email@example.com asking for the discount and our team will be glad to help you.
Yes. Please check our refunds and cancellation policy (link given in the footer of our website) for more details.
You can send an email to firstname.lastname@example.org and Uplatz course team will respond back on your queries.